Latex – Fixing the brackets in hyperref bookmarks for RTL languages (such as Hebrew)

In my last post, I’ve shown a way to fix the hyperref package so it would work with RTL languages.

One of the problem float were that the brackets in the pdf bookmarks were inverse. Again, It’s probably caused by the inverse parsing. The solution for that is pretty simple, replace the function that sets the bookmark and add a code to replace between ‘(‘ and ‘)’ (and for the other brackets as well, i.e. “[]{}<>”)

The “problem” was, that the function I had to replace is pretty long, and I was too lazy in order to find a better solution, therefor you will had one big ugly part of code in your solution (until I will have the time to build my own).

So in order to fix the bracket, all you have to do is to add this code to the preamble:

\def\pdfstringdef#1#2{%
  \begingroup
    \escapechar`\\%
    \edef\0{\string\0}%
    \edef\1{\string\1}%
    \edef\2{\string\2}%
    \edef\3{\string\3}%
    \ifHy@unicode
      \edef\8{\string\8}%
      \edef\9{\string\9}%
      \fontencoding{PU}%
      \HyPsd@UTFviii
      \def\ifpdfstringunicode##1##2{##1}%
    \else
      \fontencoding{PD1}%
      \def\ifpdfstringunicode##1##2{##2}%
    \fi
    \let\utf@viii@undeferr\HyPsd@utf@viii@undeferr
    \enc@update
    \@inmathwarn\pdfstringdef
    \let\@inmathwarn\HyPsd@inmathwarn
    \let\add@accent\HyPsd@add@accent
    \let\{\textbraceright
    \let\}\textbraceleft
    \let\\\textbackslash
    \let\#\textnumbersign
    \let\$\textdollar
    \let\%\textpercent
    \let\&\textampersand
    \let\_\textunderscore
    \let\P\textparagraph
    \let\ldots\textellipsis
    \let\dots\textellipsis
    \def\\{\pdfstringdefWarn\\}%
    \def\newline{\pdfstringdefWarn\newline}%
    \def\TeX{TeX}%
    \def\LaTeX{La\TeX}%
    \def\LaTeXe{%
      \LaTeX2%
      \ifHy@unicode\textepsilon\else e\fi
    }%
    \def\eTeX{%
      \ifHy@unicode\textepsilon\else e\fi
      -\TeX%
    }%
    \def\SliTeX{Sli\TeX}%
    \def\MF{Metafont}%
    \def\MP{Metapost}%
    \let\fontencoding\@gobble
    \let\fontfamily\@gobble
    \let\fontseries\@gobble
    \let\fontshape\@gobble
    \let\fontsize\@gobbletwo
    \let\selectfont\@empty
    \let\usefont\@gobblefour
    \let\emph\@firstofone
    \let\textnormal\@firstofone
    \let\textrm\@firstofone
    \let\textsf\@firstofone
    \let\texttt\@firstofone
    \let\textbf\@firstofone
    \let\textmd\@firstofone
    \let\textit\@firstofone
    \let\textsc\@firstofone
    \let\textsl\@firstofone
    \let\textup\@firstofone
    \let\normalfont\@empty
    \let\rmfamily\@empty
    \let\sffamily\@empty
    \let\ttfamily\@empty
    \let\bfseries\@empty
    \let\mdseries\@empty
    \let\itshape\@empty
    \let\scshape\@empty
    \let\slshape\@empty
    \let\upshape\@empty
    \let\em\@empty
    \let\rm\@empty
    \let\Huge\@empty
    \let\LARGE\@empty
    \let\Large\@empty
    \let\footnotesize\@empty
    \let\huge\@empty
    \let\large\@empty
    \let\normalsize\@empty
    \let\scriptsize\@empty
    \let\small\@empty
    \let\tiny\@empty
    \let\mathversion\@gobble
    \let\phantom\@gobble
    \let\vphantom\@gobble
    \let\hphantom\@gobble
    \def\textcolor##1##{\@secondoftwo}%
    \def\MakeUppercase{\MakeUppercaseUnsupportedInPdfStrings}%
    \def\MakeLowercase{\MakeLowercaseUnsupportedInPdfStrings}%
    \let\textlatin\@firstofone
    \ltx@IfUndefined{language@group}{}{%
      \csname HyPsd@babel@\language@group\endcsname
    }%
    \HyPsd@GreekPatch
    \HyPsd@SpanishPatch
    \HyPsd@RussianPatch
    \HyPsd@BabelPatch
    \let\@safe@activestrue\relax
    \let\@safe@activesfalse\relax
    \let\cyr\relax
    \let\es@roman\@Roman
    \let\glqq\textglqq
    \let\grqq\textgrqq
    \let\glq\textglq
    \let\grq\textgrq
    \let\flqq\textflqq
    \let\frqq\textfrqq
    \let\flq\textflq
    \let\frq\textfrq
    \let\if@mid@expandable\@firstoftwo
    \HyPsd@AMSclassfix
    \let\hspace\HyPsd@hspace
    \let\label\@gobble
    \let\index\@gobble
    \let\glossary\@gobble
    \let\href\HyPsd@href
    \let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
    \let\ref\HyPsd@ref
    \let\pageref\HyPsd@pageref
    \let\nameref\HyPsd@nameref
    \let\autoref\HyPsd@autoref
    \let\leavevmode\@empty
    \let\mbox\@empty
    \def\halign{\pdfstringdefWarn\halign\@gobble}%
    \let\ignorespaces\HyPsd@ignorespaces
    \let\Hy@SectionAnchorHref\@gobble
    \HyPsd@CJKhook
    \Hy@pdfstringtrue
    \pdfstringdefPreHook
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\space
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\ %
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace~%
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\nobreakspace
    \ltx@IfUndefined{@xspace}{%
      \let\xspace\HyPsd@ITALCORR
    }{%
      \let\xspace\HyPsd@XSPACE
    }%
    \let\/\HyPsd@ITALCORR
    \let\bgroup\/%
    \let\egroup\/%
    \let\discretionary\@gobbletwo
    \def\@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\@ifnextchar}%
    \def\kernel@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\kernel@ifnextchar}%
    \def\new@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\new@ifnextchar}%
    \let\@protected@testopt\HyPsd@protected@testopt
    \let\@protected@testopt@xargs\HyPsd@protected@testopt
    \begingroup
      \let\GenericError\@gobblefour
      \let\GenericWarning\@gobbletwo
      \let\GenericInfo\@gobbletwo
      \ifx\nofrenchguillemets\@undefined
      \else
        \nofrenchguillemets
      \fi
      \let\Hy@temp\xdef
      \let\def\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\gdef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\edef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\xdef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\futurelet\HyPsd@LetCommand
      \let\let\HyPsd@LetCommand
      \Hy@temp#1{#2}%
    \endgroup
    \ifx#1\@empty
    \else
      \HyPsd@ProtectSpaces#1%
      \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
      \expandafter\HyPsd@RemoveBraces\expandafter{#1|}%
      \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      \let\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\relax
      {%
         \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
         \expandafter\HyPsd@CheckCatcodes#1\HyPsd@End
         \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      }%
      \expandafter\HyPsd@RemoveMask\expandafter
        |\expandafter\@empty#1\HyPsd@End#1%
      \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\HyPsd@GLYPHERR}{\relax}#1%
      \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
      \expandafter\HyPsd@GlyphProcess#1\relax\@empty
      \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      \HyPsd@StringSubst{\\}{\textbackslash}#1%
      \ifHy@unicode
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\040\endcsname
          \HyPsd@SPACEOPTI#1%
        \edef\Hy@temp@A{\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\80\273}%
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\Hy@temp@A}%
          {\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\80\273}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\040}\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI#1%
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{%
          \expandafter\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\expandafter\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI
          \string\273}{\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\273}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\)}{\80\050}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst){\80\050}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\050\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\050}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\)}{\050}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst){\050}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\050}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\]}{\80\133}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst]{\80\133}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\133\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\133}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\]}{\133}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst]{\133}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\133}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\[}{\80\135}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst[{\80\135}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\135\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\135}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\[}{\135}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst[{\135}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\135}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\>}{\80\074}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst>{\80\074}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\074\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\074}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\>}{\074}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst>{\074}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\074}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\<}{\80\076}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst<{\80\076}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\076\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\076}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\<}{\076}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst<{\076}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\076}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\/}\HyPsd@empty#1%
      \ltx@IfUndefined{@xspace}{%
      }{%
        \let\HyPsd@xspace\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter
          {\HyPsd@XSPACE}\HyPsd@xspace#1%
        \let\HyPsd@xspace\HyPsd@doxspace
      }%
      \xdef#1{#1\HyPsd@empty}%
      \HyPsd@Subst{---}\textemdash#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{--}\textendash#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{!`}\textexclamdown#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{?`}\textquestiondown#1%
      \let\HyPsd@empty\@empty
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst\(\textparenright#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst(\textparenright#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst\({\051}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst({\051}#1%
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\051}{\string\(}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \edef\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI{\80\040}%
      \else
        \let\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\HyPsd@spaceopti
      \fi
      \xdef#1{#1\@empty}%
    \fi
  \endgroup
  \begingroup
    \ifHy@unicode
      \HyPsd@ConvertToUnicode#1%
      \ifx\HyPsd@pdfencoding\HyPsd@pdfencoding@auto
        \ltx@IfUndefined{StringEncodingConvertTest}{%
        }{%
          \EdefUnescapeString\HyPsd@temp#1%
          \ifxetex
            \let\HyPsd@UnescapedString\HyPsd@temp
            \StringEncodingConvertTest\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
                                      {utf16be}{ascii-print}{%
              \EdefEscapeString\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
              \global\let#1\HyPsd@temp
              \HyPsd@EscapeTeX#1%
              \Hy@unicodefalse
            }{%
              \HyPsd@ToBigChars#1%
            }%
          \else
            \StringEncodingConvertTest\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
                                      {utf16be}{pdfdoc}{%
              \EdefEscapeString\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
              \global\let#1\HyPsd@temp
              \HyPsd@EscapeTeX#1%
              \Hy@unicodefalse
            }{}%
          \fi
        }%
      \fi
    \fi
    \HyPsd@XeTeXBigCharsfalse
    \pdfstringdefPostHook#1%
  \endgroup
}

And with the RTL fix from last post, your preamble should look something like the following:

\PreloadUnicodePage{5}

\usepackage[unicode=true] {hyperref}

\def\contentsline#1#2#3#4{%
  \ifx\\#4\\%
    \csname l@#1\endcsname{#2}{#3}%
  \else
    \ifcase\Hy@linktoc % none
      \csname l@#1\endcsname{#2}{#3}%
    \or % section
      \csname l@#1\endcsname{%
        \beginL\hyper@linkstart{link}{#4}{\R{#2}}\hyper@linkend\endL
      }{#3}%
    \or % page
      \csname l@#1\endcsname{{#2}}{%
        \hyper@linkstart{link}{#4}{#3}\hyper@linkend
      }%
    \else % all
      \csname l@#1\endcsname{%
        \hyper@linkstart{link}{#4}{#2}\hyper@linkend
      }{%
        \hyper@linkstart{link}{#4}{#3}\hyper@linkend
      }%
    \fi
  \fi
}

\def\pdfstringdef#1#2{%
  \begingroup
    \escapechar`\\%
    \edef\0{\string\0}%
    \edef\1{\string\1}%
    \edef\2{\string\2}%
    \edef\3{\string\3}%
    \ifHy@unicode
      \edef\8{\string\8}%
      \edef\9{\string\9}%
      \fontencoding{PU}%
      \HyPsd@UTFviii
      \def\ifpdfstringunicode##1##2{##1}%
    \else
      \fontencoding{PD1}%
      \def\ifpdfstringunicode##1##2{##2}%
    \fi
    \let\utf@viii@undeferr\HyPsd@utf@viii@undeferr
    \enc@update
    \@inmathwarn\pdfstringdef
    \let\@inmathwarn\HyPsd@inmathwarn
    \let\add@accent\HyPsd@add@accent
    \let\{\textbraceright
    \let\}\textbraceleft
    \let\\\textbackslash
    \let\#\textnumbersign
    \let\$\textdollar
    \let\%\textpercent
    \let\&\textampersand
    \let\_\textunderscore
    \let\P\textparagraph
    \let\ldots\textellipsis
    \let\dots\textellipsis
    \def\\{\pdfstringdefWarn\\}%
    \def\newline{\pdfstringdefWarn\newline}%
    \def\TeX{TeX}%
    \def\LaTeX{La\TeX}%
    \def\LaTeXe{%
      \LaTeX2%
      \ifHy@unicode\textepsilon\else e\fi
    }%
    \def\eTeX{%
      \ifHy@unicode\textepsilon\else e\fi
      -\TeX%
    }%
    \def\SliTeX{Sli\TeX}%
    \def\MF{Metafont}%
    \def\MP{Metapost}%
    \let\fontencoding\@gobble
    \let\fontfamily\@gobble
    \let\fontseries\@gobble
    \let\fontshape\@gobble
    \let\fontsize\@gobbletwo
    \let\selectfont\@empty
    \let\usefont\@gobblefour
    \let\emph\@firstofone
    \let\textnormal\@firstofone
    \let\textrm\@firstofone
    \let\textsf\@firstofone
    \let\texttt\@firstofone
    \let\textbf\@firstofone
    \let\textmd\@firstofone
    \let\textit\@firstofone
    \let\textsc\@firstofone
    \let\textsl\@firstofone
    \let\textup\@firstofone
    \let\normalfont\@empty
    \let\rmfamily\@empty
    \let\sffamily\@empty
    \let\ttfamily\@empty
    \let\bfseries\@empty
    \let\mdseries\@empty
    \let\itshape\@empty
    \let\scshape\@empty
    \let\slshape\@empty
    \let\upshape\@empty
    \let\em\@empty
    \let\rm\@empty
    \let\Huge\@empty
    \let\LARGE\@empty
    \let\Large\@empty
    \let\footnotesize\@empty
    \let\huge\@empty
    \let\large\@empty
    \let\normalsize\@empty
    \let\scriptsize\@empty
    \let\small\@empty
    \let\tiny\@empty
    \let\mathversion\@gobble
    \let\phantom\@gobble
    \let\vphantom\@gobble
    \let\hphantom\@gobble
    \def\textcolor##1##{\@secondoftwo}%
    \def\MakeUppercase{\MakeUppercaseUnsupportedInPdfStrings}%
    \def\MakeLowercase{\MakeLowercaseUnsupportedInPdfStrings}%
    \let\textlatin\@firstofone
    \ltx@IfUndefined{language@group}{}{%
      \csname HyPsd@babel@\language@group\endcsname
    }%
    \HyPsd@GreekPatch
    \HyPsd@SpanishPatch
    \HyPsd@RussianPatch
    \HyPsd@BabelPatch
    \let\@safe@activestrue\relax
    \let\@safe@activesfalse\relax
    \let\cyr\relax
    \let\es@roman\@Roman
    \let\glqq\textglqq
    \let\grqq\textgrqq
    \let\glq\textglq
    \let\grq\textgrq
    \let\flqq\textflqq
    \let\frqq\textfrqq
    \let\flq\textflq
    \let\frq\textfrq
    \let\if@mid@expandable\@firstoftwo
    \HyPsd@AMSclassfix
    \let\hspace\HyPsd@hspace
    \let\label\@gobble
    \let\index\@gobble
    \let\glossary\@gobble
    \let\href\HyPsd@href
    \let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
    \let\ref\HyPsd@ref
    \let\pageref\HyPsd@pageref
    \let\nameref\HyPsd@nameref
    \let\autoref\HyPsd@autoref
    \let\leavevmode\@empty
    \let\mbox\@empty
    \def\halign{\pdfstringdefWarn\halign\@gobble}%
    \let\ignorespaces\HyPsd@ignorespaces
    \let\Hy@SectionAnchorHref\@gobble
    \HyPsd@CJKhook
    \Hy@pdfstringtrue
    \pdfstringdefPreHook
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\space
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\ %
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace~%
    \HyPsd@LetUnexpandableSpace\nobreakspace
    \ltx@IfUndefined{@xspace}{%
      \let\xspace\HyPsd@ITALCORR
    }{%
      \let\xspace\HyPsd@XSPACE
    }%
    \let\/\HyPsd@ITALCORR
    \let\bgroup\/%
    \let\egroup\/%
    \let\discretionary\@gobbletwo
    \def\@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\@ifnextchar}%
    \def\kernel@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\kernel@ifnextchar}%
    \def\new@ifnextchar{\HyPsd@ifnextchar\new@ifnextchar}%
    \let\@protected@testopt\HyPsd@protected@testopt
    \let\@protected@testopt@xargs\HyPsd@protected@testopt
    \begingroup
      \let\GenericError\@gobblefour
      \let\GenericWarning\@gobbletwo
      \let\GenericInfo\@gobbletwo
      \ifx\nofrenchguillemets\@undefined
      \else
        \nofrenchguillemets
      \fi
      \let\Hy@temp\xdef
      \let\def\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\gdef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\edef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\xdef\HyPsd@DefCommand
      \let\futurelet\HyPsd@LetCommand
      \let\let\HyPsd@LetCommand
      \Hy@temp#1{#2}%
    \endgroup
    \ifx#1\@empty
    \else
      \HyPsd@ProtectSpaces#1%
      \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
      \expandafter\HyPsd@RemoveBraces\expandafter{#1|}%
      \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      \let\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\relax
      {%
         \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
         \expandafter\HyPsd@CheckCatcodes#1\HyPsd@End
         \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      }%
      \expandafter\HyPsd@RemoveMask\expandafter
        |\expandafter\@empty#1\HyPsd@End#1%
      \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\HyPsd@GLYPHERR}{\relax}#1%
      \let\HyPsd@String\@empty
      \expandafter\HyPsd@GlyphProcess#1\relax\@empty
      \global\let#1\HyPsd@String
      \HyPsd@StringSubst{\\}{\textbackslash}#1%
      \ifHy@unicode
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\040\endcsname
          \HyPsd@SPACEOPTI#1%
        \edef\Hy@temp@A{\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\80\273}%
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\Hy@temp@A}%
          {\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\80\273}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\040}\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI#1%
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{%
          \expandafter\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\expandafter\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI
          \string\273}{\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\273}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\)}{\80\050}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst){\80\050}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\050\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\050}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\)}{\050}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst){\050}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\050}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\]}{\80\133}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst]{\80\133}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\133\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\133}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\]}{\133}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst]{\133}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\133}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\[}{\80\135}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst[{\80\135}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\135\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\135}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\[}{\135}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst[{\135}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\135}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\>}{\80\074}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst>{\80\074}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\074\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\074}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\>}{\074}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst>{\074}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\074}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\<}{\80\076}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst<{\80\076}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@StringSubst\csname 80\076\endcsname
          {\HyPsd@empty\80\076}#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\<}{\076}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst<{\076}#1%
        \let\HyPsd@empty\relax
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\076}{\HyPsd@empty\string\)}#1%
      \fi
      \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter{\/}\HyPsd@empty#1%
      \ltx@IfUndefined{@xspace}{%
      }{%
        \let\HyPsd@xspace\relax
        \expandafter\HyPsd@Subst\expandafter
          {\HyPsd@XSPACE}\HyPsd@xspace#1%
        \let\HyPsd@xspace\HyPsd@doxspace
      }%
      \xdef#1{#1\HyPsd@empty}%
      \HyPsd@Subst{---}\textemdash#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{--}\textendash#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{!`}\textexclamdown#1%
      \HyPsd@Subst{?`}\textquestiondown#1%
      \let\HyPsd@empty\@empty
      \ifHy@unicode
        \HyPsd@StringSubst\(\textparenright#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst(\textparenright#1%
      \else
        \HyPsd@StringSubst\({\051}#1%
        \HyPsd@Subst({\051}#1%
        \HyPsd@StringSubst{\051}{\string\(}#1%
      \fi
      \ifHy@unicode
        \edef\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI{\80\040}%
      \else
        \let\HyPsd@SPACEOPTI\HyPsd@spaceopti
      \fi
      \xdef#1{#1\@empty}%
    \fi
  \endgroup
  \begingroup
    \ifHy@unicode
      \HyPsd@ConvertToUnicode#1%
      \ifx\HyPsd@pdfencoding\HyPsd@pdfencoding@auto
        \ltx@IfUndefined{StringEncodingConvertTest}{%
        }{%
          \EdefUnescapeString\HyPsd@temp#1%
          \ifxetex
            \let\HyPsd@UnescapedString\HyPsd@temp
            \StringEncodingConvertTest\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
                                      {utf16be}{ascii-print}{%
              \EdefEscapeString\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
              \global\let#1\HyPsd@temp
              \HyPsd@EscapeTeX#1%
              \Hy@unicodefalse
            }{%
              \HyPsd@ToBigChars#1%
            }%
          \else
            \StringEncodingConvertTest\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
                                      {utf16be}{pdfdoc}{%
              \EdefEscapeString\HyPsd@temp\HyPsd@temp
              \global\let#1\HyPsd@temp
              \HyPsd@EscapeTeX#1%
              \Hy@unicodefalse
            }{}%
          \fi
        }%
      \fi
    \fi
    \HyPsd@XeTeXBigCharsfalse
    \pdfstringdefPostHook#1%
  \endgroup
}
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